This axis brings together all the expertise of the laboratory aimed at synthesizing, identifying, and/or characterizing original molecular architectures, unidentified compounds, or molecular assemblies with new properties. The analytical tools that the laboratory uses or has access to enable analyses of the geometric structure of molecules (composition, conformation, stereochemistry) and their electronic structure, both in the condensed phase and in the gas phase. In this regard, several professional expertise areas are identified within this axis: synthesis, spectroscopy including X-ray diffraction, modeling and numerical simulation, and mass spectrometry. Each member of the laboratory provides support according to their expertise to other members. In this context, we can give the example of a new opportunity for the laboratory in the measurement of ionic mobility in mass spectrometry, which can be used for the fine structure determination of coordination complexes or even in operando structural analysis for catalysis.